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Available literature on the essentials of good administration has categorized four important components: rationality, responsibility, competence, and continuity. It has also discussed the connection between the evolution of industrial society and the emergence of big government-government big in terms of both the scope of its responsibilities and the size of its administrative machinery. It was shown that industrial society, in its own interest, is bound to press for efficiency in the operation of that machinery. The pressure for efficiency favors a structure of organization characterized by vertical relationships of command, lateral relationships of advice, and complementary relationships of accountability, more specialization, professional training, fixed compensation and permanence.
Each of these features represents a response to the basic requirement that the administrative machinery of government function effectively. Indeed, without these features the machinery would fail to accomplish its purposes. The rise of the modern bureaucracy can be understood only when we recognize its superior capacity for attending to the essentials of public administration. What are these essentials? Broadly speaking, they may be listed as
1. The essential of rationality,
2. The essential of responsibility,
3. The essential of competence and
4. The essential of continuity. We now turn to consider in this order each of the four.